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    From counterterrorism to major-country competition, America hegemony all but exhausted

    從“反恐”轉向“大國競爭”,美式霸權疲態盡顯

    來源:China Military Online責任編輯:Wang Xinjuan
    2021-09-09 16:52

    李偉

    By Li Wei

    “9?11”事件以來,美國全球反恐未能真正遏制恐怖主義的猖獗勢頭。在美國“軍事反恐”在國際上留下眾多“爛攤子”的情況下,又出于一己私利把戰略重心從“反恐”轉向“大國競爭”,試圖制造更多新麻煩。

    America’s global anti-terrorist operations after “9?11” have not really curbed the rampant terrorist activities. As its “military counterterrorism” approach has left one mess after another around the world, now, out of selfish interests, it is shifting its strategic focus to major-country competition, bent on creating more new troubles.

    以反恐為名謀私利,美國成“人道危機制造者”

    US becomes humanitarian crisis maker in pursuit of self-interests under the name of counterterrorism

    美國本是“9?11”恐怖襲擊的受害者,但最終卻成了打著“反恐”旗號強推美式民主的“加害者”。美國夾帶私貨的“反恐”不僅未能達到打擊恐怖主義的目的,反而給世界制造了更多麻煩、給了恐怖主義活動空間。

    The US was the victim of the “9?11” terrorist attack, yet, as it turns out, it has turned itself into the “victimizer” that forces American democracy upon other countries in the name of counterterrorism. Its anti-terror operations, partly to serve its own purposes, haven’t really put a brake on terrorism but have instead created more troubles for the world and more space for terrorist activities.

    如果說美國發動阿富汗戰爭之初還具有反恐特征與性質,但在摧毀了“基地”在阿訓練營、擊斃本?拉登后,就偏離了原本的反恐之路。一是美國在阿富汗扶持一個美式民主模式建立的政權。這個政權在20年戰爭結束,美軍還未完全撤出就迅速垮臺。二是美軍在阿富汗戰爭中的對手并不是恐怖組織,而是阿富汗塔利班。

    The US-waged Afghan war might carry some anti-terror elements in the beginning, but it deviated from the original path after US troops destroyed al-Qaeda’s training camps in Afghanistan and killed Bin Laden. For one thing, it tried to support a regime in Afghanistan that adopted American-style democracy, which quickly toppled when the 20-year-long war came to an end, even before the US troops were fully withdrawn. For another, what the US troops were up against in Afghanistan were not terrorist organizations, but the Taliban.

    美在阿富汗“反恐”戰爭是要維系一個親美政權,從而獲得遏制周邊國家的戰略地緣利益。結果有目共睹:阿富汗成為恐怖主義的溫床,總體局勢始終處于混亂狀態,民眾更是生活在水深火熱之中。

    The US launched the anti-terror war in Afghanistan in order to bring up a pro-America regime and therefore obtain the strategic geopolitical advantage of containing surrounding countries. The result cannot be clearer: Afghanistan becomes the hotbed of terrorism, the country is in endless chaos, and the people there are living in dire agony.

    更有甚者,美國于2003年以“反恐”之名發起第二次伊拉克戰爭。為推翻薩達姆政權,對中東國家進行“民主改造”,美國甚至“制造”了伊拉克“擁有大規模殺傷性武器、與‘基地’有聯系”的虛假情報。伊拉克戰爭不僅毀了伊拉克,也催生了“伊斯蘭國”。迄今,“伊斯蘭國”不僅極大危害伊拉克和敘利亞國家安全,也成為全球恐怖主義的“大旗”,對國際社會構成嚴峻恐怖威脅。

    What was worse, the US launched the second Iraqi war in 2003 still in the name of counterterrorism. To overthrow the Saddam regime and implement the so-called “democratic reform” of the Middle Eastern country, Washington even fabricated such false intelligence that Iraq “possessed weapons of massive destruction and had connections with al-Qaeda”. The war not only destroyed Iraq but also gave birth to Islamic State (IS), which has seriously damaged the national security of Iraq and Syria and become the bellwether of global terrorism, posing grave terrorist threats to the international community.

    此外,美主導北約軍事介入利比亞局勢,使利比亞仍處于部落軍閥混戰狀態,民眾生活更是毫無安全可言;美國武力打擊敘利亞,以期推翻美“不喜歡”的敘利亞現政府,使這個國家長期陷入內戰,民眾生命時刻處于危險之中。

    In addition, the US-led NATO has militarily interfered in the Libyan situation, leaving the country in the grip of battles among tribal warlords and its people in defenseless misery. The US also launched armed attacks against Syria to overthrow the current government that’s not to its liking, leaving the country in a protracted civil war and people’s lives always on the line.

    可以看到,美國為了本國利益,借“反恐”處處插手干預別國內部事務,不僅成為“麻煩制造者”,也是“難民制造者”,更是“人道主義危機制造者”。

    It’s clear to all that the US, for its own interests, has gone amuck interfering in the internal affairs of other countries under the pretext of counterterrorism. It is not only a trouble maker but also a maker of refugees and humanitarian crises.

    從“反恐”轉向“大國競爭”,美國成“世界動亂制造者”

    From counterterrorism to major-country competition, America creates unrest around the globe

    美國霸權疲態盡顯,維護霸權的焦慮感與日俱增,將戰略重心從“反恐”轉向“大國競爭”,以期繼續維護霸權地位。

    The American hegemony is all but exhausted. Washington is so anxious to maintain it that it has shifted its strategic focus from counterterrorism to major-country competition.

    然而,一方面,美依靠軍事力量維護霸權漸入死胡同。美國建國200多年的時間里,就發動或參與200多場戰爭。但是,這種軍事行動越來越多遭遇慘敗,此次美國在阿富汗的敗局就是一個最好例證。

    However, the old way of maintaining hegemony with military strength has come to a dead end. Since the US was founded over 200 years ago, it has waged or participated in more than 200 wars, and its military operations more and more end up in crushing defeat, as well proved by the fiasco in Afghanistan.

    另一方面,美式民主也不再被視為“普遍真理”。很多長期遭受美西方殖民統治的發展中國家獨立后,被迫接受美式民體制。但是,這種政治體制的上層建筑與這些國家的經濟基礎不相適應的矛盾十分突出,成為眾多發展中國家動蕩不安、經濟停滯不前的主要因素。越來越多發展中國家發出“西方民主救不了我們”的呼聲。

    On the other hand, American-style democracy is no longer viewed as the “universal truth”. Many developing countries that were under the colonial rule of the US-led West were forced to accept the American democratic system after gaining independence, but the political superstructure was so incongruous with the economic foundation that many of them have been plagued by constant turmoil and economic stagnation. A growing number of developing countries have realized western democracy cannot save them.

    美國不甘心霸權地位的衰落,認為是新興國家的快速發展挑戰了美國一超獨霸的地位。因此,美國在國際反恐上不斷“碰壁”后,矛頭調轉指向中國和俄羅斯。但是,雖然美國迫不及待在國際“反恐”上轉向,以“基地”和“伊斯蘭國”為核心的國際恐怖勢力卻并未“轉向”,依然將美國作為最主要的攻擊目標。因此,美國在國際反恐上的錯誤做法,更使美國民眾成為恐怖襲擊的犧牲品。

    Refusing to accept its falling domination, the US thinks it’s the emerging countries’ rapid development that has challenged its superpower position, so after its international anti-terrorist operations have hit the wall, more than once, it decided to turn its eyes to China and Russia. While Washington cannot wait to veer from the anti-terror road, international terrorist forces centered on al-Qaeda and IS haven’t veered and continued to take the US as their arch target. In other words, America’s wrongdoings in counterterrorism have exposed its people to terrorist attacks.

    以發展促進民生的改善,才是從更深層上逐漸鏟除滋生蔓延恐怖主義土壤的正確做法。只有以國際社會整體利益為出發點,才能真正地解決國際社會面臨的恐怖主義問題。美國應當清醒認識到,單邊主義的時代已經一去不復返。

    The only way to uproot the soil that breeds and spreads terrorism is improving people’s lives through development. Only when we base our actions on the overall interests of the world can we fundamentally solve the terrorist issue facing the international community. Those at Capitol Hill must realize that the age of unilateralism is gone for good.

    (作者為中國現代國際關系研究院研究員)

    (The author is a researcher from the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations)

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